Cancer is like the main leader of all the diseases. It is an umbrella for a group of the diseases which are caused by the abnormal cells dividing rapidly, and spreading to the other organs and tissues. Cancer is the dangerous disease that’s leading causes of death in the world.
Cancer growth and metastasis
There are trillions of cells in a healthy body and the body needs to function them daily. Healthy cells have their own specific life cycle, reproducing and dying off in a way that is already determined.
When the old or damaged cells die, new cells automatically take place. Cancer alters this process and makes abnormal growth in the cells. It is because of the changes or mutations in the DNA.
DNA is found on the individual genes of every cell. It has the instructions which tell the cells about the functions to perform and how to grow and divide.
There is the frequent occurrence of mutation in DNA but cell itself corrects the mistakes. But it can be cancerous if the mistake is not corrected.
Mutation can add the extra cells that are not necessary and divide it uncontrollably. It can cause a growth of tumours to form. Tumours are very dangerous and it can cause several types of health problems depending on the size of growth in the body.
But not every a tumour is cancerous. Tumour-like benign tumours are not cancerous and it does not spread to the tissues. But the Malignant tumours are cancerous and can also affect other parts of the body.
Types of cancer
Cancers are named according to the area which they start and the types of cells which they are made of. For example, if it starts from the lung it is known as the lung cancer.
There are many other clinical terms that are used for certain general types of cancer:
- Carcinoma: begins in the skin in the tissues that line other organs
- Sarcoma: starts from the connective tissues like muscles, cartilage, bone, and the blood vessels
- Leukaemia: takes place in bone marrow, that creates the blood cells
- Lymphoma and myeloma: starts from the immune system
Risk factors and the treatment
The main cause of the cancer is the changes in the DNA of your cells. It can also take place because of the genetic mutations and also after the birth because of the environmental forces.
Some of the environmental forces include:
- Expose to the radiation
- Direct exposure to the sun
- Because of human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Exposing to the carcinogens, a cancer-causing chemicals
- Level of physical activity and the type of diet
With the increasing age, the risk of cancer also increases. Some of the existing health conditions that tend to inflammation can also increase the risk.
Likewise, if you know the factors that cause cancer, it can help in decreasing the risk of it. According to the experts, there are some of the ways to be prevented from it. They are:
- Stop the use of tobacco as well as avoid the secondhand smoke
- Eat a balanced diet
- Keep a healthy weight and exercise for at least for 30 minutes every day.
- Protect yourself from the sun
- Get a vaccination against the viral infections which can lead to cancer.
- Do not get engaged in the risky behaviours. Always go for a safe sex and don’t use the used needles.
Treatment of cancer has several objectives. Those objectives will be dependent on the type and its size.
These objectives include:
- Finding a better cure: it is not possible for every type
- Giving a primary treatment: killing the cancer cells of the body
- Giving an adjuvant treatment: killing the cancer cells which are left after the primary treatment. It will help to reduce the risk of coming back.
- Giving a palliative treatment: detecting the symptoms associated with cancer like pain and trouble breathing.
The common types of treatment are:
- Radiation therapy
- Stem cell (Bone Marrow) transplant
- Targeted drug therapy
- Clinical trials
- Alternative medicines
Alternative medicines include:
- relaxation techniques